Over the years, when I research, learn about Democracy, and build democratic institutions, I always question: is there a democratic system applicable to all countries? (in the normal state, i.e., no war), Do all bring good results? How to have a democratic institution, to build such a democratic institution?

     The research efforts have paid off, and I believe I have found a democracy that all countries can apply and reach the ultimate goal: the people’s freedom. Not only that, this Democracy will show the way and bring countries with harmony into a larger institution, the global Democracy, which we often hear under the name of Globalization.

     There will be an immediate question, how similar and different this Democracy is, compared to the US democracy? They are similar in basic principles but different in building a synchronous system from the beginning. The American democratic institution, the most preeminent democratic institution today, is a process of discovery and creativity in constructing the United States of America and building the American democratic institution. It was a process of arduous trial and error of the American people for several hundred years. Up to now, it is a comprehensive institution; however, it is not perfect.

     The democratic institution that I am about to present is drawing the most basic principles of American Democracy. Still, the application is wholly proactive and synchronous in the system of relationships in all areas. The codes are laid out in my book about Democracy. This article, however, will explain and present those principles from a different perspective on democratic institutions. It is a self-perfecting structure that includes a system of self-regulating mechanisms in all areas.

     I/ Democratic Institutions – Self-improvement structure includes a system of automated mechanisms in all fields

     1/ Some theoretical issues

     Before delving deeper into democratic institutions, we need to understand the theory and reasoning of the Self-Complete Structure and the self-regulation mechanism. A democracy that all countries can apply must have self-improvement within its structure. Therefore, we need to understand what is a self-completed system.

     A self-fulfilling structure is a system of interrelated internal factors that always leads to the qualitative and quantitative development of that system or format.

     Any self-improvement structure includes the following elements:

     – Intrinsic dynamics of the structure (system)

     – Mechanism to enforce, promote and develop that motivation

      – Synchronization of the system

     When we talk about self-fulfilling structures, we mean social systems where people interact. So how are the elements of the self-fulfilling system to be understood socially?

     – The intrinsic motivation of the structure, which is the most common and most important human need, needs to find out this need.

     – The mechanism of enforcement, promotion, and development of motivation is the mechanism and way for people to fulfill that most essential and common need.

     The synchronization of the system comes from the diverse needs of people and the system’s operating requirements.

     Because the (general) human need is natural, the most important thing is the implementation mechanism to satisfy that need. This mechanism is the nucleus in a whole system of interacting elements.

     When we find out the common, most important need, the driving force for the whole system, we find and build an enforcement mechanism to realize this need, along with synchronous interaction elements. Then that system or structure will self-operate to bring out the best, regardless of the subjective will of any individual or group. It’s called a self-complete structure.

   Self-regulation: There are two aspects to self-regulation; one is the arrangement of elements according to a logic of interaction that promotes and controls each other to help the constituents not grow biased and out of control. The most obvious example is the separation of powers. Second, the self-regulation mechanism is a system of regulations on results and consequences that the subject can choose to benefit himself and his work. We need to have specific, clear, and strict rules on rewards and punishments, benefits, and consequences in all aspects and areas of human life. In all interactions with society, from work to social activities, individuals need to self-regulate their behavior following regulations in each part and field of life. The self-regulatory mechanism will help to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the self-improvement structure and prevent in the first place the defects and deviations that could lead to the destruction of the self-improvement structure of the democratic institution.

    Therefore, a self-completed structure is a system of elements interacting and leading to the development of the system. The automated mechanism enhances the effectiveness and efficiency of the self-finishing design.

     2/ Interpreting the democratic institution in terms of self-improvement structure

     a- As mentioned above, the first important thing in a self-perfecting network is to find the motivation within the system. A democratic institution has a structural framework that is the entire human society in a country. Finding society’s inspiration is understanding the primary and most essential needs of people living in the community. Finding the right, primary, and most important human needs is a crucial step towards the most important mechanism, which is the nucleus of the self-improvement structure of the democratic institution. It is a mechanism to ensure the promotion and development of that essential motivation and need.

     There have been many books and documents that talk about the most critical needs of people in general, but there are quite a lot of mistakes. For example, someone said that an essential human demand is the desire to be considered worthy by others. This demand sounds reasonable, but it’s not all. Many people are not looking for other people’s evaluation of themselves; they are looking for the special, different from everyone else. Also, the effort to have a lot of money to satisfy various human needs is a particular need that many people pursue; however, some still do not dream of making money in society. So what is the most common, covering all the different needs (essential to each individual) for people in general? It is the human need for self-expression. One wants to express himself by earning a lot of money; the other wants to express himself by having a lot of power. Others want to express themselves through the difference in painting. The need for self-expression is the most important, shared, and indispensable in every human being. Thus, any society equally contains an intrinsic drive for development and self-improvement because the most important human condition is the same across all races, ethnicities, and cultures. Countries.

     b- What can help people satisfy and fulfill that most critical need? That is Freedom! Freedom is an essential factor for people in general and individuals to perform self-expression. We need to build a mechanism to ensure human freedom to develop and perfect itself.

     Next, what is an essential factor in ensuring human freedom in society? We all know that a democratic society must include many vital elements and institutions such as separation of powers, decentralization (federal state), pluralism, multi-party system, and people’s fundamental rights—human rights and civil rights. But we need to focus on the essential factor, called the nucleus. That is the factor that I have mentioned in previous books and articles: the ability of each individual to protect their human rights is the most important nucleus of the democratic mechanism of the democratic institution.

     Thus, the mechanism to ensure each individual’s ability to self-protect human rights is the most essential and nuclear in the self-improvement structure of a democratic institution.

    c- To ensure the implementation of this nuclear mechanism, a series of conditions and factors are required. Those are the requirement for the system’s synchronization self-completed structure. Many institutions guarantee human rights in terms of legislation and enforcement mechanisms. But the most important in the nuclear tool (the ability of each individual to protect their human rights) is the HUMAN RIGHTS COURT so that each individual can protect their human rights. The Human Rights Court is the most important institution to exercise the ability to protect the human rights of each individual.

     The Human Rights Court is a place where individuals can defend their human rights on their own, but what about the case of poor individuals who do not have the money to hire a lawyer and participate in legal proceedings? Now is the time to show the consensus and superiority of the people-centered Democracy, all focused on human freedom. All citizens are free to protect their human rights in Human Rights Courts at all levels. Government systems at all levels will have to have funding for this. Suppose we only point out suitable mechanisms and institutions to protect human rights without the exact requirements and conditions to ensure that the tool works appropriately and brings the highest benefits to the people. In that case, we never have absolute freedom and an effective democracy.

     II/ Methods of building democratic institutions of the country

     One thing to note is that the country’s way of creating a democratic institution has been outlined here and is not entirely different or novel. It is also making the necessary institutions of any democracy in the world today. However, there is a particular emphasis and focus on some institutions, and also, there are improvements in many aspects.

     First of all, we need to affirm that the building of the nation’s democratic institutions includes the formation of the following necessary institutions: the Democratic Constitution, also known as the fundamental law of the country; separation of powers (legislative, executive, and judicial); the formation and establishment of political parties (pluralism, multi-party); decentralization mechanism, federalism; fundamental human freedoms; political civil liberties, or civil rights, etc. In building all those institutions, it is necessary to focus on perfecting and creating many important institutions and contents.

     1/ Focus on building a grassroots democratic institution, which is an administrative unit in which the people directly participate

      Unlike most of the ways Democracy is built today in the world, the focus of Democracy should be on the grassroots unit. People should be able to participate directly. so the development of laws that guarantee human rights in their specific circumstances. (To better understand this section, please read the book Democracy, Chapter IV, Realizing Democracy). An important trend of the world is that Globalization has helped reduce the burden of national roles, which also means reducing the central government’s concentration of power and resources in building democratic institutions. Thus, building centralized democratic institutions on the grassroots level is very favorable for countries.

     2/ Focus on building Human Rights Courts at all levels and enforcement mechanisms for people to protect their human rights

      Now is the most crucial mechanism and institution of the democratic institution, the nucleus in the self-improvement structure of the national democratic institution. We have successfully built Human Rights Courts, and the enforcement mechanism for the protection of human rights means that we have succeeded in building democratic institutions. The Human Rights Court is also a new element and institution compared to all existing democratic institutions globally. To successfully develop a Human Rights Court and enforcement mechanism, we need to ensure:

     – Complete independence and absolute power based on the Constitution and laws of the judiciary in general and the Human Rights Court in particular. Without the autonomy and total control of the Human Rights Court, we cannot say that people can defend their human rights independently.

     – Build a team of independent and professional human rights lawyers in providing legal support and jointly protecting the human rights of citizens.

     – To build up the state’s funding to support the activities of protecting the human rights of citizens in legal proceedings.

      In short, in addition to establishing Human Rights Courts at all levels, the state needs to ensure legal and financial support for citizens to protect their human rights.

     3/ Equip the people with knowledge about freedom, Democracy, and how to build a democratic institution for the people

      The people are the subject of building a democratic institution, especially when the focus of the democratic institution is at the grassroots level, people’s awareness is an essential factor. People need to be fully equipped with knowledge about freedom and Democracy, building democratic institutions, and especially understanding the mechanism to protect their human rights. It is a vital job, but almost no country has equipped people with knowledge in this field. On the one hand, the democratic institutions of today’s countries are mainly built on the national level, not on the grassroots level of Democracy, so the role of the people is very faint. On the other hand, freedom and Democracy are too academic, abstract, and difficult to understand, so few people know them. Therefore, to effectively equip people with knowledge, it is necessary to:

     + Standardize knowledge about freedom and Democracy in the most understandable, vivid, and popular form.

     + To build democratic academies, democracy departments in universities, and democracy subjects in high schools to disseminate to everyone in society.

     The more people understand freedom and Democracy, the more practical and effective they will contribute to building a democratic institution and improving their ability to protect their human rights.

     4/ Applying the self-regulation mechanism in all aspects of social life

     Undoubtedly, applying self-regulation in all aspects of social life will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of democratic institutions. We need a self-regulation mechanism regulating the outcomes and consequences of individual choices for self and work. The reward and punishment system for living style, going early and leaving late at work, or the work results will put individuals on the best choices for themselves and their work. An automated mechanism is vital and needs to be implemented immediately. For example, an office has a manager and ten employees. Employees have detailed and meticulous rules of reward and punishment, and the heaviest penalty is dismissal for certain violations. The head of the department will be removed when 3-4 employees are fired. Just like that, a department head (or director) will also lose their job if a certain number of office heads under their authority are fired. That is the self-adjustment mechanism.

     However, the implementation of the self-regulation mechanism needs to be calculated very carefully and in detail. Initially, this mechanism should apply to enforcement work in important, sensitive areas. Then it will spread to all areas of the whole system. Finally, it will come to people’s civil activities when they get used to and accept the self-regulation mechanism at work.

     We should emphasize that the self-regulatory mechanism is fundamental in improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the self-improvement structure – liberal democracy.

III/ Holding hands to build Democracy: Vietnamese Dream

     According to the logic of the book Democracy and the author’s articles, so far, we have the material to build a liberal democracy. The basic principles and a large part of the content of building democratic institutions have been outlined in the book Democracy. The first part of this article has explained the entire democratic institution in terms of a social structure built to maximize the intrinsic motivation of people and the whole society, leading to development and self-perfection of the system, that structure. We have also mentioned how to build a nation’s democratic institutions in general, which applies to all countries. However, for Vietnam, we need to have concrete and practical steps and methods based on the current situation of the country and the unique characteristics of Vietnam.

     1/ Important contents to be prepared in the process of building a democratic institution in Vietnam

      In the article “Challenges in building a democratic institution in Vietnam,” we have mentioned the unique characteristics of Vietnam when building a democratic institution. We do not have alternative political forces, people are surprised, and we have no experience working together as organizations. Therefore, we need time to make essential preparations. Building a democratic institution is an important and complex job. There is a feeling that the countries that have changed regimes in recent times have been too hasty in establishing democratic institutions. We often hear that countries have time to draft constitutions and prepare for general elections from 6 months to 1 year. Now is a fantastic time; almost no one can do anything but copy the existing figures and methods of organization somewhere. Let us spend 2-3 years of preparation and 1-2 years for political parties and organizations to the campaign. If we want to build a genuinely liberal democracy, that is the minimum time. So during this time, what do we need to prepare and do?

    a) Shaping political organizations, parties, and forces is vital, taking time. We have several political parties and organizations abroad, and when we move back home, it takes a while for people to get used to and choose. Organizations in the country also began to be established and mobilized people to participate. 2-3 years is not a long time, but it is enough for partisan organizations to take shape and come into operation.

    b) To draw up a draft of a democratic constitution to seek people’s opinions. It is a mandatory job for any country to build a democratic institution. The Constitution is the fundamental law, but we need a more open view. We should only mention the most critical issues shaping the country, the most important contents. Regarding the new Constitution of Vietnam, I lean towards the constitution-building spirit of the Pluralistic Democratic Gathering. Still, two more essential contents are needed: the Act on Building Human Rights Courts at all levels and the Act on compulsory education for people about freedom, Democracy, and building democratic institutions.

     c) Establishment of the National Mediation Committee. It is essential and indispensable for our country. Over the past century, we have been so divided and enmity, as well as in constant conflict. We need a Committee to neutralize hatred, distinguish right from wrong, and finally, bring people closer together, join hands to build the country. What should the Conciliation Commission do?

     + To create a system of normative values, referring to the international value system, then, to re-evaluate the entire history of Vietnam, right now, from the end of the 19th century to the present. What is right, wrong, worthy, and wrongdoing should be transparent and clear to socio-political forces and individuals who have made their mark in Vietnam’s history. Doing this is very important because most other countries that escaped from the communist peril have not done so. It is imperative to Vietnam because of a very damaging legacy that the Vietnamese Communists have left. All values ​​in life are turned upside down, making people unable to perceive right, wrong, merit, and sin.

     + Gather all files, complaints, and denunciations about the wrongdoing of all people from the time the Communist Party appeared to its collapse. It is necessary to divide into different categories for handling. This work is also a must if we want to leave the past behind and turn to the future. The handling needs the spirit of openly admitting wrongdoing to restore the honor and dignity of the victims. If economic conditions allow, there will be partial compensation for victims.

     + Determine the leading spirit in handling the responsible people of the Vietnamese Communist regime. This job is challenging, complex, and sensitive. But in my opinion, when there is a Mediation Committee, this committee must do everything methodically, openly, and transparently. The standard spirit is to learn from the countries that got rid of the Communist regime previously, and at the same time not to affect the building of democratic institutions in the future. Also, we need to have collective repentance of those who have intentionally or unintentionally persecuted the people in the nation.

     2/ Contents that need attention, emphasis, and special attention in the process of building a liberal democratic institution

     a) Content to focus on: Building the federal state. This division is a condition, a mandatory mechanism of the democratic regime. The decentralization mechanism enables all regions with distinct characteristics to fully develop their comparative advantages. It also avoids partisan conflicts on a national scale. The strange thing is that the benefits of decentralization and federalism are preeminent, and its implementation is so essential to liberal Democracy that many countries worldwide ignore it. There are long-standing democratic countries like France, countries with long-standing democratic institutions like Thailand, new countries with democratic institutions like Egypt or Ukraine, missing these essential institutions. These countries all have insecurities and defects in their democratic structures. Most significantly, we see, Thailand is a typical example of the failure of Democracy directly related to the neglect of the mechanism of decentralization, the federal system. If converted to federalism, the countries just mentioned will solve the current instability.

     Based on the awareness of the theory, the necessity of the decentralization mechanism, of the federal system, and at the same time drawing from the experiences of countries that ignore this critical factor, we need to decide the state of future Vietnam is a federal state.

    b) Content to be emphasized: Human Rights Court. We have mentioned many times that the Human Rights Court, the mechanism for people to protect their human rights, is the core and most important tool of the liberal democratic institution and self-perfecting structure. But the need to emphasize this mechanism is also because, if implemented, we are the first country to do this. Therefore, it is crucial to paving the way for the success or failure of a new approach to building democratic institutions. We have successfully implemented this mechanism, this content; our democratic institution will be a model in the future for other countries to follow.

     c) Content that needs special attention: Equipping people with knowledge about freedom, Democracy, and methods of building democratic institutions. After all, a mechanism, an institution to succeed must rely on the participation, contribution, implementation, and implementation of the people. But people can only participate when they are aware of the issues and content they participate in to benefit themselves. When we equip people with this knowledge, we don’t need to worry much about our Democracy. Because, when people know their rights (benefits), learn how to build a democratic institution that brings those rights, and finally, know how to protect their human rights, it is implicit the country will have a genuinely liberal democracy, approaching perfection. After all, countries do not have absolute freedom for their people because they do not know: what is freedom?


     We have a future; we have people interested in building a democracy in the future; we need solidarity and determination. History will choose this painful and unfortunate nation (Vietnam) to do something for humanity. Do we have the confidence to hold hands together to build a democratic institution that upholds and honors people successfully? Let’s hold hands together to make the VIETNAM DREAM!

Hanoi, May 31, 2014

Nguyen Vu Binh

Translator: Thuan Do

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